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Archive for August, 2012

ETL 505 Subeject Heading Exercise 3:

Posted by arlekeno on August 31, 2012

Ok, my answers are:

War poetry – Collections. scisshl
Australian poetry – Collections. scisshl
New Zealand poetry – Collections. scisshl

Pacifism. scisshl and Iraq War, 2003-2010. scisshl

A collection of antiwar poems by Australian and New Zealand poets in 2004 against the war in Iraq.

Start with the Abouts.

War Poetry, Gulf War, ANZAC?? Protest??

War poetry

Broader Term
Poetry – Collections
Related Term
War songs

I think we can use this instead of the Broader Poetry Collections. Will check Poetry Collections for Scope notes.

Poetry – Collections

Scope Note
Use for collections of poems by more than one author.
Specific Example Note
For poetry on a theme or subject the subdivision Poetry may be used with subjects, e.g. Cats – Poetry (unless a ready-made heading such as Sea poetry already exists).

OK, it is specifically about war, AND the heading already exists. Confirmed! Not only that, I can use War-Poetry Collections, and that also already exists in opac records.

Iraq War, 2003-2010

Indexing Note
May be subdivided like World War, 1939-1945

Yep, I think we can confirm this one as well.


Used For
Peace movements

And this is also used in some4 Anti War records.


Ok, will now go for something Australian and NZ related.


Scope Note
Use for works on the art, technique, appreciation and philosophy of poetry.
Specific Example Note
For poetry on a theme or subject the subdivision Poetry may be used with subjects, e.g. Animals – Poetry (unless a ready-made heading such as Sea poetry already exists). See also poetry of national* and ethnic* groups, e.g. English poetry; Aboriginal poetry; Maori poetry; New Zealand poetry.

So, New Zealand Poetry and Australian Poetry.


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ETL 505 Subject Heading Exercise 2:

Posted by arlekeno on August 30, 2012

Student Assessment

Mathematics – Computer – Assisted instruction (chnge to Aritmmetic, due to specificity).

Mathematics – Examinations (, No scrap that, Arithmetic -Examinations).

Education, Primary Examinations, questions, etc. instead of the above. There are SO many options and I can’t find a clear answer for any  of them\!

A software program of graded tests in arithmetic. The tests are designed to be used by primary (elementary) teachers to assess the abilities of their students in arithmetic.

Computer-assisted instruction

Scope Note
Use for works on the interactive, instructional technique in which a computer is used to present instructional materials, monitor learning and select additional instructional material in accordance with individual learning needs. For works on the use of a computer to maintain and analyse data on learner performance use Computer-managed instruction.
Specific Example Note
See also subjects with the subdivision Computer-assisted instruction, e.g. Mathematics – Computer-assisted instruction.

Looks lie we start with Mathematics – Computer – Assisted instruction.

This one looks promising.

Mathematics – Problems, exercises, etc.

Example heading
Example under Curriculum planning; Exercises and examples; Lesson plans; Problems, exercises, etc.; Revision aids; Study guides

PROVIDED, there is not a seperate heading for gradings for example.

Assessment and reporting (Education)

Specific Example Note
For works consisting of guidelines for teachers to use in assessment of student achievement in specific subjects, use educational subjects with the subdivision Assessment, e.g. Mathematics – Assessment. For examples or sets of examination questions, use the name of the subject with the subdivision Examinations, questions etc., e.g. Mathematics – Examinations, questions, etc. For works on assessing student performance and/or behaviour in general, use Student assessment. For works on communicating to parents and the community on the achievements of students and schools use Reporting (Education). For works on the assessment of educational objectives, nationally, statewide or locally, use Educational evaluation.
So the question is, is this about the tests, or making rubrics etc. Will look at Ed evaluation

Educational evaluation

Scope Note
Use for works on the assessment of educational objectives, nationally, statewide or locally.

This may be closer. Lets try grading

Grading and marking (Students)

Used For
Marking (Students)
Students – Grading and marking

( I would LOVE a scope note here)!.   LLOK< I FOUND ONE IN TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS)

Educational tests and measurements

Scope Note
Use for works on discussions of the tests themselves. For works on the evaluation of students’ progress, use Grading and marking (Students).

Just looked at the TORCH test, they use

Examinations, questions, etc.

Specific Example Note
Use subjects (except names of groups of people) with the subdivision Examinations, questions, etc., e.g. Mathematics – Examinations, questions, etc. See also the headings Examinations; Quizzes.

(so I would go MATHEMATICS – Examinations, questions, etc. ) ,

Not using study and teaching because the scope note suggests its only for teaching methods.

Trying to figure out if I can use Numeracy – Assessment.

I think I might just go Student Assessment.  as per scope note of Assessment and reporting.

Student assessment

Scope Note
Use for works on assessing student performance and/or behaviour.
also found –
Education, Primary Examinations, questions, etc.

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ETL 505 Subject Heading Exercise 1.

Posted by arlekeno on August 29, 2012

A book of short romantic stories, which are fictional accounts of adolescent love. The stories are set in the city of Paris in France, the text is in French and French authors wrote the stories. The work won the literary award ‘Best Young Love Stories’ in 2008.


Key Elements: Romantic Stories, Adolescent Love, Paris (France), in French, by French and a prize.

Now, to list some possible Subject headings.

5.6 Literary Prizes: Best Young Love Stories. (Name of prize as SH).

French literature. scisshl Already a subject heading, used for other French Stories.  (But is it for short stories?)

French language text. scisshl (used for language works in, several examples in SCis opac). 

French short stories. scisshl (Plus scope notes on Short stories -see also Adolescents ficton).  Used in preference to the broader term Literature – collection.

Adolescents – Fiction

Adolescents in France.  (only used in non fic I think).

Adolescents in France – Fiction. scisshl


5.3 Place Headings in Fiction: Paris (France).


Subject Headings Selected:


(Not using Authors, French, as that appaers to be for Critiques of).



French Short Stories (Rather than Literature collection, and because they are by French Authors).

Adolescents in France – Fiction (The Collection is of about French Adolescents, rather than others in French Society, and is fiction, a search for Adolescents will still show this result).

French Language Text  (is a work in the French language)

Best Young Love Stories (Prize)

Paris (France)  (Location in fiction)

Love Stories. (No sub-division for nation or age? in scope note, and no examples in SCIS opac)


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Assessment item 2A: Subject access: subject headings

Posted by arlekeno on August 29, 2012

Using the following tools:
◦ SCIS subject headings online
◦ Section 4, Subject headings, in SCIS standards for cataloguing and data entry
Assign SCIS standard subject headings for works on the five topics presented on page
2 (BELOW). Write the subject headings as they would appear on bibliographic
records on SCIS OPAC (except there is no need to underline your subject headings, to
add ‘scisshl’ at the end of the headings, or to include ‘scot’ headings).
State briefly the decisions followed in determining/deriving the subject headings
(approximately 200 words per item). Provide a reference list of tools used and works
Example exercise
A work, which names and describes a number of sources of historical materials used
in writing narrative school histories. This work is specifically concerned with sources
used for the writing of narrative histories of Queensland government schools.
Example subject heading devised
State schools – Queensland – History – Sources

Example key decisions followed
SN at ‘History’ SN and SEN at ‘History – Sources’ ‘Government schools’ USE ‘State
Schools’ IN at ‘State schools’ Guidelines, Part 6.7 Multi concept headings
Guidelines, Part 2 Specificity
This assignment assesses your practical understanding of, and ability to apply, a
controlled vocabulary approach to providing access by subject.
Marking criteria
The assignment will be assessed on:
◦ The appropriateness and accuracy of subject headings assigned (20 marks).
◦ The understanding shown of the processes by which these subject headings are
determined (15 marks).
◦ The clarity of your presentation (marks can be deducted from above)


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ETL505 – Thesauri.

Posted by arlekeno on August 25, 2012

Below is an an answer to the question ‘What is a thesaurus?’. It comes from the Introduction to the MDA (Museum Documentation Association) Archaeological Objects Thesaurus.

A thesaurus is a tool which helps indexers and searchers to choose words consistently to describe things or concepts. The thesaurus is structured in such a way that related words are grouped together and cross-referenced to other groups of words which may be relevant to the subject. Where there is a choice of words with the same or similar meanings, the thesaurus provides a single preferred word and, by arranging terms in a hierarchy, allows the selection of more general or specific words. The purpose of the thesaurus is to standardise the use of terminology, which not only helps in indexing information but also in its retrieval.

From Willpower Information’s

My main purpose in this paper is to make three points:

  • A simple name list without some rules will rapidly become a mess.
  • Only three simple rules are needed; using them will make life easier for you, not harder.
  • So long as you stick to these rules, you can take an existing thesaurus and adapt it to your needs; you are not limited to using the terms which are listed in it already, and you are not obliged to use more detail than you need.

What are these rules?

  1. Use a limited list of indexing terms, but plenty of entry terms
    — link these withUSEandUSE FOR (UF)relationships.
  2. Structure terms of the same type into hierarchies
    — link these withBROADER TERM/NARROWER TERM (BT/NT)relationships.
  3. Remind users of other terms to consider
    — link these withRELATED TERM/RELATED TERM (RT/RT)relationships.

All good here, looks a lot like the SCIS Subject Headings. Not to mention some good Boolean logic etc. I hope my catalogue does this, but I doubt it.

A bit up in the air on the rules for Broader terms and Narrower terms. Esp in the Previous subject heading rules. For me it is always like Japanese Address, You go Most general to most specific and include all.

Still need more info on what HEIRACHIES means in this field.


The Schools Online Thesaurus (ScOT)

OK, SO SCIS is based on Literary warrant ( what already exists) in pre-computer days, ScOT was designed specifically for PC world and systematic coverage of the national syllabus (Hider pg178). .. Will ScOT replace SCIS? N.B., Scis is pre-coordinated (& Inverted headings), which may not be as important to Gen 4 search engines.

Used more commonly for abstracting and indexing systems and online indexing ( are lib catalogues more like online indexes now? ) pg147 More specific, single terms, and better relationships.

Anyway, to the SCOT website. THE VISUAL INTERFACE IS SO MUCH BETTER FOR A VISUAL LEARNER LIKE ME!   Ok, pg 9 of 15 deals a little with the Hierarchies I think.

Just compared a list of words in Scot to Scishl. The thesaurus had better relationships and more specific terms. (and a better screen layout).

Last Question on ScOT… How do i search TaLE with it?


Some of the tools we have examined in this module can be used to provide better subject access to online materials as well as to physical ones; indeed, some of them have been designed for online resources – search engines, for example. However, there are some aspects of web resources which make things particular hard, when it comes to subject access.

  • First, there are so many more resources on the web than in even the biggest library, so vocabulary control is particularly challenging.
  • Second, there are many different media, often within the same resource, and how to integrate text-based retrieval with non-text-based retrieval remains a largely unanswered question.
  • Third, there are many different users, who might want the same resources materials, but for different reasons and content.
  • Fourth, web resources are notoriously granular – is the subject of a website what is on the home page, or on the majority of pages, or all the pages, or on all parts of all the pages?
  • Fifth, web resources change very frequently. A new page may be added with a new subject; a website may be revamped so that some subjects are no longer covered.

We have certainly not yet created a set of tools which fully overcome all these problems.

Text book Chap 9:

We wish library Cats were as good as google … sigh.

Subject Directories, pg 170. Again, “filtering up”? And yahoo is one? and

Will skip the web searches, did that last subject or two I think, Straight to subject gateways or portals, Selected and controlled, E.G.
The internet library for librarians.
I wonder If I can use it for essays.

Pg 176, a good Subject access system needs, Simplicity ( coz a lot of it isn’t done by experts). Interoperability (distribution across countries, subject areas etc) and Scalability (rang of places it can be used).

DDC to be used for online standard? i think it could work. We all looked at it as kids.

Ontologies and taxonomies? Interesting pg182.

Ooh, I would like to be an information architect.  but Social tagging and folksonomies we did a few subjects back. pg183

Seriously, we should make IT people do this subject.

Open this link later

Taxonomies : beyond thesauri and classification?

Liz Edols

INF209 – Describing and Analysing Information Resources INF425 – Describing and Analysing Information Resources ETL505 – Bibliographic Standards in Education 2001

Keyword Searching and school library OPACs.

Ok, all about boolean v Keyword searches in SCIS, not much new here. But a good article on “Automatic Indexing” By Glenda Brown 1996

Social Tagging and Folksonomies, again, already done this.

It is the responsibility of the teacher librarian to ensure the subject access to resources provided through the catalogue is suitable to the needs and abilities of the library’s users and that the subject access potential of the library automation system/OPAC in use is fully utilised.

Where SCIS bibliographic records are used in the OPAC the teacher librarian should:

  • use SCIS products to create a full controlled vocabulary reference structure;
  • maintain the subject authority file to ensure there are no anomalies which will adversely affect subject retrieval;
  • with caution, add local or additional subject headings and cross references when it is important to do so. Ensure the validity of the controlled vocabulary approach is not breached by such additions;
  • be thoroughly conversant with the means provided in your OPAC for using the natural language approach;
  • utilise this potential by adding to subject records in the notes area where this will be of benefit to your users;
  • tutor your users in the effective use of the controlled vocabulary and natural subject access available to them.

In Module 6 we move on to the related area of classification.



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Module 5.3: SCIS subject headings.

Posted by arlekeno on August 23, 2012

The subject analysis process
This section has been adapted from the SCIS Standards for Cataloguing and Data Entry. The subject indexing process involves the following:
Scanning the resource to determine the subject content. In some cases this will involve viewing videos or websites.
Assessing the predominant theme(s) of the resource. The catalogue user’s perspective is considered as well.
Translating the theme(s) into allowed subject headings from the list.
Entering the subject heading(s) in the bibliographic record using the appropriate fields as established by the library system.

I have done all of these within my own library, and apparently we only need to do 2and 3 in the next task.. YAY!

It is traditional and sound practice to assign subject headings, which match as closely as possible the subject content of the resource. In other words subject headings are assigned to the level of the subject(s) covered in the resource.

When assigning subject headings it is important to ensure that no major theme of the resource being catalogued is overlooked. The set of headings selected needs to be co-extensive with all the major themes contained within that resource.

Again, this is just common sense (and the source of many debates between my office ladies and I).

4.1.1 Generalities versus specificity
The principle is to prefer several specific subject headings rather than a general, broader subject heading. (Then a how bunch of rules about precedence)

NOW this one is interesting. as they would not use the SH MATHS. Apparently the catalog will “Guide” people there.

4.5 Resources on a broad subject with multiple related subjects
For resources dealing with several subjects that are all related as more specific headings within a broader subject, but are treated separately within the resource, assign a subject heading for each specific subject.
Title: Algebra, geometry, trigonometry [videorecording]
Subject: Algebra
In the example above, the heading Mathematics would not be assigned as the reference structure within the catalogue will guide users from the broader term to more specific headings.

5.1 Fiction as a standard subdivision

A bunch of rules of what you can do for fiction, e.g. subheading, place, awards etc.

Looking at teh study task..

It makes pretty good sense if you have  kids who have learnt how to do more than one search and think in terms of synonyms.

Devising additional headings

Headings that may be devised by the cataloguer consist of:
1. proper names, for example names of individuals, peoples, places, organisations and projects

common names belonging to well-known categories including sport, food, animals, chemicals, plants and vehicles.

6.3 Devising adjectival headings

Such an example is the instruction given under the heading for Art:
SEN The adjectival form for a national* or ethnic* group/style may be added as needed, e.g. Art, European.

6.4 Devising phrase headings

SEN For subjects in art use phrase headings in the form [Subject] in art, e.g. Animals in art.

Honestly, I think I will just re-read the whole thing when it is time for the assessment task. I am amazed how well set out it is really.

6.5 Using the subdivisions
Words or phrases added to headings in the list after the long dash ( – ) are referred to as subdivisions (e.g. Literatures – Collections). These subdivisions are additional concepts which make headings more specific.

Honestly, there are just so many and too many to summarize. I will just read the whole thing properly for the Assess task 2.

I will really need to explore EVERY possible angle when I do the task 2. Some of the exercises e.g. 20, about grasslands v Grassland ecology are beating me.

CROSS REFERENCES (from pg 26 of 37 of Mod 5).

My catalogue has no cross references.. oh the shame 😥

If we fail to provide cross references we are:

  • undermining the effort that has been put into assigning subject headings;
  • reducing the effectiveness of the catalogue as a retrieval tool; and
  • creating frustrations for our users who will be less inclined to use the catalogue.

For example, a catalogue may have records of works under the subject heading ‘Magnetism’. Users who search under this term will find the works, but unless cross references have been provided to guide users from rejected headings such as ‘Magnets’,

e.g. Magnets
see Magnetism,

or from broader subject headings such as ‘Physics’,

e.g. Physics
see also Magnetism.

Hang on, I just did a search in SENTRAL, and only MAGNETISM showed up, did it in OASIS, MAGNETS did too!.

BUT! How do I cross-reference in my system?

HIDER CHAP 5: Authority Controls.

Authority Control has 3 aspects – Uniqueness – Standardisation – linkages- (pg 85) with the process having 3 steps.

  1. Distinguishing names and titles: forms of names created and processed uniformly.
  2. Showing relationships: Linking different version s of the same body to each other, e.g. Twain, M. Twain, Mark, Samuel Clement.
  3. Documenting Decisions: Record how you chose a heading, so later people can be consistent ( hence Ass.Task.2)

Would make life easier, but is expensive.

Honestly, looking at the SCIS authority files, I have no idea what I am doing, ior if I can use it even if I can afford it?




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Module 5, Cont: Metadata (again)

Posted by arlekeno on August 21, 2012

Starting with METADATA (an overview) Dr Warwick Cathro NLA

My definition is that “an element of metadata describes an information resource, or helps provide access to an information resource”.

I love this line, ” Information stored in the “META” field of an HTML Web page is metadata, associated with the information resource by being embedded within it. The indexing data held by Web crawlers is also metadata (though not very good metadata) – linked to the information resource through the URL.”  Just coz its a potshot at web crawlers 😛

good def of precision and recall:

At library school, we learnt to measure information retrieval in terms of recall and precision. If we miss a lot of relevant information, we have poor recall. If we get flooded by a lot of irrelevant information, we have poor precision. In certain circumstances (such as searches for patents) very high recall is essential. However, in most circumstances, searchers would be content with a small number of relevant documents, and would be willing to scan through a few dozen citations to identify them. Recall and precision factors of 10-20% are often acceptable for most purposes.

Then talks a bit about how web pages work, pretty interesting stuff.

I can’t understand the warwick framework at all!

The Minimalist/structuralist issue:

Ok, in short, people who want it simple, universal and easy to use. V those who want it more complicated and harder to use  but more accurate.

Qulaifiers which may ( or may not) improve use of Dublin Core.

In this context, it is necessary to explain that there are three kinds of qualifiers. One kind, known as TYPE, refines the meaning of the field. Thus, “personal” and “corporate” are TYPEs which, if present, narrow the meaning of the CREATOR field. (This is usually expressed in so-called dot notation, as “Creator.Personal” or “Creator.Corporate”). Another kind of qualifier, known as SCHEME, explains the meaning of the data contained in the field. For example, “LCSH” is a SCHEME which helps to interpret the content of the SUBJECT field. These qualifiers – SCHEME and TYPE, along with a third one which denotes the language of the content of the field – are known collectively as the “Canberra Qualifiers”.

Specific structural proposals

In my view, probably ten of the fifteen Dublin Core elements could use unqualified free text as their default value, with a SCHEME being an optional addition. Something like five elements appear to require either a SCHEME or an authorised list of values as the default standard. One of these, RESOURCE IDENTIFIER, we have already discussed. The other four which probably require some structure in their default mode are DATE, RESOURCE TYPE, LANGUAGE and COVERAGE. The use of free text words in these five elements will probably fail to deliver satisfactory search precision. For example, a RESOURCE TYPE can be expressed in many different ways (article, paper, contribution, etc.) and without a controlled


As the quantity of information on the World Wide Web multiplies rapidly, it will become increasingly difficult to retrieve information, with reasonable precision and recall, using the major search and harvesting engines. The use of metadata, combined with the use of improved harvesting processes, has the potential to improve retrieval of these information resources.

ActivityVisit Metadata and use the find facility in your web browser (e.g., in Internet Explorer use Ctrl+F) to search on the word Warwick. The result from this search lead you to three kinds of occurrences of the word Warwick.

  • What are they?
  • Were the results of this search very precise?
You might also like to use the find facility to search on other web pages which contain a lot of text, and identify the kinds of issues which arise.

Well, The Name of the Author, the name of the University and the name of the framework. I think it is pretty precise ( provided you spell the name right). And it was not too long a doc.

Going on with the notes. The problem of Homonyms is the one I didn’t think about. The Synonym or alternate spellings though seemed pretty obvious after all the work with subject headings and alternating between spell checkers. Anyway, Fulll text searches not 100%.

Anyway, many of these problems can be dealt with by Searching surrogates (abstracts, or catalogue records). If you’ve someone to make


Searching on Keywords: From the title, cheap, easy, but not standardized. And not always clear from the title. E.g. How do I know a Bridge too far is about WW2?  but useful if you know the title-ish

I just did the Activity searching for keywords in title were pretty good, occasionally you get a few odd ones turn up, but mostly it worked.

Finally controlled Vocabs ( e.g. LoC SH) good results, but prescriptive and a lot of time to make.

TO Chapter 8  of HIDER: Alphabetical subject access mechanisms:

PG 134. Advantages and Disadvantages of Controlled Vocabulary indexing, derived indexing and free indexing languages.

PG 135. Definitions for Exhaustivity, Specificity, coextensive entry, relevence-recall-precision, and pre-cordinate and Post-cordinate . VERY IMPORTANT!!!

What the hell is a scope note?


Excercise 3:



Indexing Note
May subdiv. geog.
Specific Example Note
See also names of individual abbeys*, e.g. Westminster Abbey.
Broader Term
Church architecture
Church history
Religious communities
Related Term


Abominable snowman

Used For
Broader Term
Unexplained phenomena
Related Term

Aboriginal children

Audiovisual aids

Specific Example Note
Use names of subjects with the subdivision Audiovisual aids, e.g. Social sciences – Audiovisual aids.


Specific Example Note
Use types of substances* and names of chemicals* with the subdivision Analysis, e.g. Food – Analysis.

Ok, I think I have it, ANalysis can only be used as a subdivision, Abduction is non approved, but Abbeys can be used.

From the SCIS overview on Scope notes. SN (Scope Notes)
Scope Notes are included in the list where needed to explain the meaning of the heading for the purpose of using it in the catalogue. The differences between similar headings or the limits of the application of the heading are often explained. IN (Indexing Notes)
Indexing Notes provide instructions to the cataloguer on the use of the heading, for example allowing subdivision following the examples in the model headings or allowing subdivision geographically. SEN (Specific Example Notes)
As it is not practical to include all possible headings in a list of this type, several examples of headings, which have been constructed according to instructions given in a Specific Example Note, are included throughout the list. A decision has been made not to include these headings as narrower terms under the main heading but to include them instead as examples.

Exercise 4
Use scope notes at headings to assist you in determining the subject heading for each of these topics.a. Animated films featuring animals
b. Handwriting as an expression of the writer’s character
c. Native plants of Australia
d. Teacher education
e. Designing gardens
f. A collection of myths and legends
g. Films made by children.

a) Film Animation – animals
b) graphology, c) Native plants – Australia. d) Teachers – Training d) landscape gardening, f) Folklore. g) Children as film makers.

3.1.2 UF and USE references
The two symbols UF (Used For) and USE provide the user with as many access points as possible to an allowed heading, alternative terms or similes. They may be represented in the list as non-allowed terms that direct the user to the allowed term. The UF and USE symbols facilitate this access. BT (Broader Term)
The symbol BT provides the user with allowed headings in the list which are more general in concept than the main heading. They identify the broader context(s) of the main heading. NT (Narrower Term)
The symbol NT provides the user with allowed headings that identify a more specific facet of the main heading. RT (Related Term)
The symbol RT provides the user with allowed headings that are associated with the main heading in some way other than hierarchically.

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Module 5: Providing subject access to resources

Posted by arlekeno on August 17, 2012

Just so you know Essay was done with several hours to spare.

Very relieved to have it done considering how many hours i put into it,

and I just hope that the marker is a starwars fans since I catalogued Princess Leia’s Message to General Obi wan.

Anyway, ETL505 Next module.


Starting off interesting, About half of the Searches are for a SUBJECT area. good to know.  (os the most common need, so providing good subject access is important)

Explanation of derived v Assigned Indexing. Points on teh search spectrum I guess.

As well as the spectrum idea, another useful way of thinking about how we provide subject access to information resources is by considering where the words or text we search on come from. Derived indexing takes words (derives them) from the document. Assigned indexing takes words from somewhere else (for example, from a list of subject headings or a thesaurus) and assigns them to the document.

I really need to know the difference between .scisshl and .SCot ( as well as provenence)

Time to read Chapter 6: Subject access concepts pg99

This has traditionally involved deciding what the information resource is about, translating that into terms (words and phrases) or symbols which represent the subject, and providing access to these terms and symbols through the library information retrieval system.
pg 100: Subject area crossroads, three paths diverge:

  1. Controlled Vocabulary: the traditional way, using subject headings, Thesauri, Bib Classification schemes.
  2. Derived indexing: Taking words directly from the text. Natural language.
  3. The Middle way: A mix of controlled vocab and natural language aided by Metadata (e.g. publisher,

Terms to know when creating subject access

  • Exhaustivity:  how many subjects do we assign? How exhaustive is the detail?
  • Literary warrant: Only accommodate subjects which already have works produced about them.
  • pre-coordination: Indexing stage (are we joining concepts together e.g. Sharp programmable calculator)
  • post coordination:search stage (joined after the the creation of entry, in boolean search)

All judged by Relevance, Recall and precision.


Subject access  Literary warrant
Indexing language Pre-coordination
Controlled vocabulary  Post-coordination
Derived indexing Natural language
Assigned indexing Free indexing language
Exhaustivity Classification scheme

A couple of the terms that may cause problems are pre-coordination and post-coordination. Harvey and Hider’s distinction is that single-concept terms can either be combined (coordinated) at the indexing stage (pre-coordination) or at the search stage (post-coordination). Bear in mind that the indexing in many computer systems allows users to search certain fields for keywords and phrases, as well as providing displays of precoordinated strings for browsing.

Ok, 1, I think I answered above, as with 2. And 3 is on page 103 of the text. Exercise 1 – Review questions

1. Explain the difference between derived indexing and assigned indexing.
2. Explain the concept of exhaustivity.

3. Outline the main weaknesses associated with the use of a controlled vocabulary.

Answers are at the end of this module

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Reference list so far. AACR2 v RDA

Posted by arlekeno on August 12, 2012

Anhalt, J., & Stewart, A. S. (2012). Rda simplified. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 50(1),

Bourke, L. (2010). Resource description and access. Connections, 2010(75), Retrieved from

Cluff, C. (2011, March 30). Mars authority control. Retrieved from

Desley, T. (2009, May). Aacr2 versus rda: from rules to entities. Paper presented at CLA pre-conference Candian library association national conference, Montreal. Retrieved from RDA and AACR2&hl=en&gl=ke&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShL_hI_UjVPRmFed95NCeY2jdJ9OfulA-mSzePtF0_t9L6vfCDWijtafBVycT-FOP8xy0v-HJtSk2mOtOcc4FdbTNA67uTeatWlZZsSNQ7FnIGdJA3a3JLE8zo5bVzVKd-lnQZm&sig=AHIEtbSpHfj9R2iaTBhMu-3dccRK2Ab7dA

Dowling, A. (2012, August 4). Question for anne about ‘rationalisation’ [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Hider, R. (2008). Organising knowledge in a global society. (Rev ed.). Wagga Wagga: Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University.

Geeky, Library. (Artist) (2009, September 11). Bram stoker’s dracula in frbr terms Library Geeky Podcast. [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

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Kelly, M. (2011). Library of congress looks beyond marc. Library Journal, December (2011), 14. Retrieved from

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Kiorgaard, D. National Library of Australia, Bibliographic Standards & Strategy,. (2009). Staff paper: Resource description and access. Retrieved from website:

Oliver, C. (2003, September 19). Christine oliver: What is frbr and why is it important? . Retrieved from

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Sanchez, Elaine, “RDA, AACR2, and You: What Catalogers Are Thinking” (2010). Staff Publications-Library.

ETL505 (2012). Module 4 of bibliographic standards for education. (course notes, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia)Retrieved from

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. Hello rda, goodbye aacr2!. (2008). Paper presented at RDA Pre-conference Texas library association annual conference, Dallas.

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ETL505: Assessment Item 1; Bibliographic Description

Posted by arlekeno on August 7, 2012

Assessment item 1
Bibliographic description
Value: 30%
Due date: 13-Aug-2012
Return date: 03-Sep-2012
Length: 2000 words (+ or minus 10%)
Submission method options
EASTS (online)
Post (option applies to DE only)

Answer the following question drawing upon relevant and current literature.


RDA will replace AACR2 in 2013. What are the advantages of the change from AACR2 to RDA?


The purpose of this assignment is to assess your understanding of the purposes and processes involved in descriptive cataloguing.

Marking criteria

You will be assessed on:

The clarity and depth of your understanding of RDA (in particular) and AACR2 (10 marks)

The effectiveness of your overview of the advantages of RDA including:

  • theoretical structure
  • compatibility with the digital environment and emerging technologies
  • potential use and users, including school libraries
  • rationalisation and potential extension of bibliographic records (10 marks)
  • continuity with existing standards

Your demonstrated understanding of the following areas within your discussion:

  • FRBR and FRAD
  • FRBR user tasks – find, select, identify, obtain
  • FRAD user tasks – find , identify, contextualise, justify
  • FRBR entities, attributes and relationships – work, expression, manifestation, item
  • The RDA Toolkit (10 marks)

The clarity and structure of your presentation and the accuracy of your referencing (marks can be deducted from the above areas)


You should use the presentation standards for teacher librarianship assessment items.

Okay. looking through my notes now and going further to try and find ways to answer this. Pretty interesting considering 2 months ago I had no idea what AACR2 or RDA were.

Anyway. Extra tool one.

A great Resource, includes mention that we don’t need such prescribed fields as next gen search engines are more flexible than the ones originally made for card cats.

and cheaper to provide these records now to find the relationships.

We can’t benefit from FRBR unless we change to an RDA but RDA alone can’t do it, unless we change the standards to make it possible.

has been developed within the whole GLAM community. (gallery, Library, Archive, Museum. Love that acronym)

Library journal Dec2011- Library of Congress looks beyond Marc. – Use World wide Web consortium’s W3c

preferred method for publishing linked data. more easily understood by users.

“relationships among data should be made available,”

Looking at : RDA Benefits for users and cataloguers (Chris Oliver 2010 McGill University Library, ALCTS conference)

10.02 min Deals with F>I>S>O and F>I>C>U>   (For BID data and AUthority Data) 13.08 deals with it specifically and well.

the Data in Bib data must allow the user to find a manifestations that match, identify a said resource, select it (e.g. is it a film) and then obtain it.

Developed by IFLA, world wide consultation (not anglophone, not only library) 19.30min e.g. used by Software engineering ( entity-relationship mode)  database design.

One item of data in one element only, as opposed to several, e.g. 260 $c date of production/publication/copyright.

Data in the long strings used in AACR can’t be searched, or used to generate a meaningful display (characters neeed human interpretation)

Possible to make it discoverable on the web. 41.48 min


Ok, about to start a Doc in my cloud word processor to get this going. Wish me luck.

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