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Archive for July, 2012

SCIS Connections Term 3 2012

Posted by arlekeno on July 27, 2012

Some good stuff in Issue 82 of Connections from the School Catalogue and Information Service.

The information on Creative commons and how we can use it was useful, but I found really interesting the article on Using the School library information systems in I.T. classes as a practical example.

The First paragraph is genius and points out two things of great importance, 1) Library as a haven, and 2) We are not just a place. \

The school library as place and space

The school library is often viewed by staff, students and the school community as a dedicated physical space that provides access to a physical collection of quality resources, teaching spaces and spaces for quiet academic study. However, it is also a community space for teachers, students and even community members to pursue individual leisure activities; as a safe haven from the terrors of the schoolyard; and for senior administrators to use as a venue for meetings or other gatherings such as staff professional development. Increasingly, the library is also a portal to virtual resources and services, where the teacher librarian (TL) provides curriculum design and teaching support for the integration of ICTs and online resources into curriculum programs across the school. As a space, the library is now fragmented into physical and virtual, real time and asynchronous, providing unlimited boundaries for the community it serves.

Finally, and most importantly for my Library masters was the article on Scis Subject headings… SCIS IS MORE

which talks about the process for adding new headings as well as that we are switching to DDC 15 abridged. Which I have just ordered.



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Module 3: Introducing Metadata

Posted by arlekeno on July 24, 2012

You would have already come across the term ‘metadata’ in the readings. What is it? (Or more correctly, What are they?) Hider (2008, p.332) defines metadata as ‘a set of elements that describes an information resource’.

Makes pretty good sense to me, information about the information, e.g. The number of pages, year of production. I think it is general to meet all the possible needs. BUT to look up 3 other definitions.

First, Wikipedia, the first search result.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the page on metadata about Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Metadata.

The term metadata is an ambiguous term which is used for two fundamentally different concepts (types). Although the expression “data about data” is often used, it does not apply to both in the same way. Structural metadata, the design and specification of data structures, cannot be about data, because at design time the application contains no data. In this case the correct description would be “data about the containers of data”. Descriptive metadata, on the other hand, is about individual instances of application data, the data content. In this case, a useful description (resulting in a disambiguating neologism) would be “data about data content” or “content about content” thus metacontent. Descriptive, Guide and the National Information Standards Organization concept of administrative metadata are all subtypes of metacontent.[citation needed]

Ok, i would have gone with Data about Data, but the term Meta-content (though un-cited) appeals to me. Interesting that Libraries had it first.

Anyway, now to a more reliable and relevant resource. The National Library of Australia.


What is metadata? My impression, from a number of recent meetings which I have attended, is that the concept is proving difficult to define with clarity. The Macquarie Dictionary defines the prefix “meta-” as meaning “among”, “together with”, “after” or “behind”. That suggests the idea of a “fellow traveller”: that metadata is not fully fledged data, but it is a kind of fellow-traveller with data, supporting it from the sidelines. My definition is that “an element of metadata describes an information resource, or helps provide access to an information resource”. A collection of such metadata elements may describe one or many information resources.

It is inherent in the concept of metadata that there is an association of some kind between the metadata and the information resource which it describes. For example, a library catalogue record is a collection of metadata elements, linked to the book or other item in the library collection through the call number. Information stored in the “META” field of an HTML Web page is metadata, associated with the information resource by being embedded within it. The indexing data held by Web crawlers is also metadata (though not very good metadata) – linked to the information resource through the URL.

Metadata can be an information resource in its own right. For example, a review of a film – which on one level is a piece of metadata related to the film – is, on another level, a literary work with its own author and perhaps its own intellectual property constraints.

Now this is the Professional view… 1) its not clear! 2) its not data but hangs out with Data (like its posse?) 3) it can be useful information in its own right.  You will notice I extended this example to talk of the embedded data in Web pages. just to keep us up to date.

Finally, from the Australian National Data Service.

Who needs to know this?

This is a general introduction which is likely to be of interest to researchers, their support staff, data centre and repository staff and research administrators.


The term metadata refers to information used to describe items and groups of items. It is data about data. It can be used to describe physical items as well as digital items (files, documents, images, datasets, etc.). A library catalogue, for example, is made up of metadata describing the books, journals and other items held by the library. The File Properties for a word processing document is a rudimentary (and imperfect) metadata record.

Item level metadata is used to describe a single object such as a photograph: who took the photograph, who is in it, the date it was taken, the place it was taken, the type of camera used to take the photograph, and so on.

Collection level metadata is used to describe an aggregation of objects such as the photo album (or CD-ROM or file folder) that contains a group of photographs: the size of the collection, who took the photographs (there may be more than one person), the time period over which the photographs were taken, and so on. Some of these attributes, such as ‘Title’ may be the same as those used to describe an individual photograph.

Metadata adds value to documents or images. For scientific data, metadata is even more important because it provides the context needed to make sense of what would otherwise be a collection of random numbers.

Types of metadata

The metadata elements used to describe either an item or a collection can serve different purposes. Some examples include:

  • Descriptive metadata, such as the name of the photographer, the subject of the photograph, the date and time that the photograph was taken;
  • Technical metadata, such as the type of camera used, the file format in which the photograph is stored, the exposure time and dimensions of the photograph, and so on;
  • Access or rights metadata, defining who is allowed to view to this photograph and under what conditions; and
  • Preservation metadata, which allows a digital preservation expert to keep track of actions taken to preserve or sustain the photograph for later access and use.

This is a good one because of the detail. I like that it says Metadata adds value to data. So we can make sense of it.

What do these 3 definitions have in common? They all say its data about data. I think the last one says it best by saying it adds value.

Although the current version of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (the second edition, 2002 revision) includes guidance for cataloguing digital material, many librarians think that it does not do so very effectively.

Think back, for a moment, to the reasons for wanting to organise information. We do it so that we can provide access. Here’s a relevant quote about why we need metadata:

Metadata is crucial to searching. If searching is, today, largely a matter of matching query words with words in the text of articles, then anything that makes the matching process easier or more standardized is bound to improve the process. Metadata is expected to improve matching by standardizing the structure and content of indexing or cataloging information. (Jessica Milstead & Susan Feldman, ‘Metadata: Cataloging by Any Other Name …’, Online, January 1999 .)

Onwards to Dublin Core

Levels of the standard

The Dublin Core standard includes two levels — Simple and Qualified. Simple Dublin Core comprises 15 elements; Qualified Dublin Core includes three additional elements;— Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder;— as well as a group of element refinements, also called qualifiers, that refine the semantics of the elements in ways that may be useful in resource discovery.

[edit] Simple Dublin Core

The Simple Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) consists of 15 metadata elements:[2] (from Wiki)

  1. Title
  2. Creator
  3. Subject
  4. Description
  5. Publisher
  6. Contributor
  7. Date
  8. Type
  9. Format
  10. Identifier
  11. Source
  12. Language
  13. Relation
  14. Coverage
  15. Rights

Each Dublin Core element is optional and may be repeated. The DCMI has established standard ways to refine elements and encourage the use of encoding and vocabulary schemes. There is no prescribed order in Dublin Core for presenting or using the elements.

From the notes :

It is important to note that Dublin Core metadata is based on four principles:

  • Simplicity – DC was designed to be applied by the people who create the information resources, rather than by information professionals.
  • Semantic interoperability – DC must be useable in different disciplines, and not be limited to any one subject area or group of subjects.
  • International consensus – because the internet operates across national boundaries, DC is developed by an international, interdisciplinary group.
  • Extensibility – DC is designed to be flexible so that it can be built on if required by specialist applications.

And some examples of what it all looks like in Action.


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Posted by arlekeno on July 18, 2012

Reading From Chapter 14 of  “Organising Knowledge in a Global Society (Princilpes and practices of libraries and information centres)” Revised Edition 2008 By Philip Hider with Ross Harvey…. Local Systems and OPACS.

An Integrated Library system (ILS) Definition pg 277

  • An ILS relies on the same data in a single database to provide four basic functions (aquisitions, cataloguing, circulation, and online public access catalogue).
  • The Database comprises bibliographic data (e.g., cataloguing records) as well as other data neccesary to carry out library-related functions (e.g. borrower files for circulation purposes)

The effectiveness of all the modules will stand or fall on factors such as the quality of the records in it and its ease of use.

I like this on OPAC T; the Goal of teh 4th Generation OPAC is to get patrons to prefer a library search to google… That is a BIG CALL!  Google has more money than libraries, but we need to this, because poor search skills leads to little success, leads to google.

Ok, just read chapter 14, now to read Chapter 8 on Controlled Vocabulary, I think here of the SCIS subject headings. Another 30 pages and references to previous chapters the Modules have not asked us to read yet…. Hmm, I think I will call it quits for a while.

A lot of talk about thesauri, and a lot of acronyms.

Activity time, .. oops, server is overloaded… oh well, shall have to wait till tomorrow I guess.

Ok, on now, after a day break, Playing around with it all.

Here’s a brief explanation of why these differences in search results using different internet search engines occur.

First, you need to know about the difference between search engines and directories.

  • Search enginesuse software called web crawlers to gather words from sources such as web page titles and site content. These words are compiled into indexes. Users search the results located by the web crawlers by searching the indexes.
  • Directories of descriptions of websites are compiled from lists of sites reviewed by editors. Users search these descriptions. Generally speaking, a well-designed site with extensive and original content is more likely to be listed in directories. (Google is famous for applying another major criterion: the extent to which pages are linked from other websites.)
  • Search engine softwaresifts through the millions of pages recorded in the index, finding matches and ranking these matches in order of relevance. This relevance ranking is determined in two main ways: by position of the words, and by their frequency.
  • Position: keywords appearing in the title of a web page, or in the first few paragraphs of text, are considered to be more relevant to the topic than words appearing in other positions on the page.
  • Frequency: keywords which appear more frequently in a web page are considered to be more relevant than other words, and so the web pages which contain them are considered more relevant.


Search engine for songs. and for pictures Virtual 24.. this is more like a News Magazine than a museum website to me.



The Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE provides information and support to digital library developers worldwide. It is also an excellent starting point for looking at a range of digital libraries. Select several digital libraries of interest to you. Browse through them, thinking about these questions as you go:

  • Is this a ‘library’ in the traditional sense of the word?
  • What categories of materials (e.g. archival material, museum objects, library material) does it provide access to? SCIS web page. ( something I am familiar with)

Anyway, I am off to read Chapter one of the text, and then I will up to date for the week, FINALLY!



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ETL 505: Module 2; Information Retrieval tools.

Posted by arlekeno on July 13, 2012



Tools used in libraries for retrieving information include:

  • Library catalogues
  • Classification schemes such as the Dewey Decimal Classification, the Library of Congress Classification and the Universal Decimal Classification: these group together information on the same or related subjects
  • Controlled vocabularies – thesauri, subject headings lists: these structure and standardise the words/terminology used
  • Tools which allow us to search text – full-text searching software
  • Image and sound retrieval tools
  • Internet search engines

These tools can be considered in two main categories:

  1. Traditional information retrieval tools, such as library catalogues, classification schemes and controlled vocabularies;
  2. Information retrieval tools developed to handle digital information resources, such as full-text retrieval tools, image and sound retrieval tools, and Internet search engines.


The history of information retrieval tools is noted in Chapter 3, ‘Development of the organization of recorded information in western civilisation’ (pages 49-66) of: Taylor’s The organization of information (2004).

OOh, LIbrary catalogues are over 4500 years old. Not too shabby. Lets hope they survive the internet 😛

I really need to get a grip on the concept of PROVENANCE.

I am looking at the documentation movement, (pg 63), and remember my radings from yesterday where we thought we could just digitise everything due to teh low cost of data storage. I wonder how long it will take for use to run out of hard drive space, the way Libraries last century had to resort to Micro-film.

ASSOCIATIVE INDEXING… I like this idea. Its how we think subjects (64) Vannevar Bush, HE THE MAN!

Information Science is Library Science for men” Love it!

A bibliographic record in a library catalogue has two parts:

  1. a description consisting of the physical attributes of the information carrier (such as number of pages, title, size) and of details about the resource’s creation, publication, etc. (for example, author);
  2. a description of what the document is about (its subject), consisting of words selected from a standard list of authorised terms (for instance, a thesaurus or a subject headings list), a classification number, and sometimes a brief description of what the document is about (an abstract).

(am meant to read Chapter 14 of our text now but it still has not arrived!)

anyway, LETS DO DEWEY!

Anyway, ther rest of this module has a LOT of Hider text readings, so I am going to stop here and worry about them on Monday.

Enjoy your weekend.



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Module 1 cont: Organising tools.

Posted by arlekeno on July 12, 2012

Our organisation tool is the INDEX

in Libraries the CATALOGUE, in Archives the FINDING AIDS and in Museums the REGISTERS. All done by pro cataloguers.


This activity asks you to adapt Cutter’s Objectives for today’s libraries. Locate a copy of Charles Cutter’s Objectives. (These are widely reprinted. You could search for them on the web, or look in standard textbooks about organising information in libraries, or check encyclopedias of library and information studies.) Read and think about these Objectives. Note that they use the terms book and library. Rewrite these objectives so that they apply to the wide range of information resources currently available through libraries, museums and archives.

so lets cut and past Wikipedia, despite Alice Ferguson’s objection’s to the internet 😛

Charles Ammi Cutter made the first explicit statement regarding the objectives of a bibliographic system in his Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalog in 1876. According to Cutter, those objectives were

1. to enable a person to find a book of which either (Identifying objective)

  • the author
  • the title
  • the subject
  • the category

is known.

2. to show what the library has (Collocating objective)

  • by a given author
  • on a given subject
  • in a given kind of literature

3. to assist in the choice of a book (Evaluating objective)

  • as to its edition (bibliographically)
  • as to its character (literary or topical)

These objectives can still be recognized in more modern definitions formulated throughout the 20th century. 1960/61 Cutter’s objectives were revised by Lubetzky and the Conference on Cataloging Principles (CCP) in Paris. The latest attempt to describe a library catalog’s goals and functions was made in 1998 with Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) which defines four user tasks: find, identify, select, and obtain.

 I personally don’t think these objectives have changed a great deal, its just that we now say what form the resource is in (physichal, online or via interlibrary loan) and how that affects how it can be obtained. replace the Word book with resource and you are pretty right to go.

Study task

Briefly summarise the quote in your own words.

  • Do you agree with what it says? Why?
  • Do you disagree? Why?


Going back to Panizzi and Cutter, it has been axiomatic that bibliographic control was a matter of keeping track of, or inventorying, a specific physical object in a specific physical place. Today, those ‘objects’ are as likely as not to be in a variety of both physical and evanescent formats and in no specific physical place as we have been used to understanding these things. Given then that the physical nature of the work is increasingly meaningless or difficult to define, the focus should now shift to where it should have been in the first place – and indeed the focus from which the various Internet search engines derive their usefulness – and that is the intellectual content and substance of the work itself (Steven L. Hensen … in a post to the Diglib online discussion list. Quote of the Month, American Libraries, 32 (1, Jan 2001): 86.

I am not sure I do agree, specifically with that Cutter’s model was not concenred with the intellectual content. If you were using a methos such as Dewey, the books would be arranged in a manner relating to their subject, and in the catalogue is the subject headings. Yes, the Content and Substance is the heart of the matter, but because the books had to be physichally arranged and catalogued does not mean the hands on nature overode the intellectual.

Key terms

Essentially this subject is about bibliographic organisation which is defined by Ross Harvey and Philip Hider (2008) in the preface to your text Organising knowledge in a global society as:

the organising of the bibliographic information that users of libraries and information centres need in order to find and select the information resources that allow them to acquire the knowledge they seek.

 I need to copy Pages 3-6 here for the definitions, I will have to figure out how to do that.. Hmm.


Study task

Where do you believe the users in your school library, or a school library you are familiar with, would rate the catalogue on the following scale (a to e)?

a. The first place they go to find the information they need.
b. The second or third place they go to find the information they need.
c. The place the teacher librarian sends them to find the information they need.
d. Can be helpful but sometimes frustrating, frequently does not lead them to the information they need.
e. Difficult to use, not worth the effort, something the teacher librarian uses to help her locate information for users.

What factors do you see as having lead to the rating which you have assigned?


For Most I would say C or E, only the regular library users go to it straight off without my guidance. I suspect this is because students just don’t know how to use catalogues ( thre are no library lessons at my school) and lack the patience to learn it themselves. Most of my studetns have no idea about even the basic boolean search terms.

Short of lessons to teach the kids how to use this stuff, I can only show them how to use it when they come in.

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ETL505: Module 1; The need for information resource description.

Posted by arlekeno on July 11, 2012

Information organisation, I like this term ( much more than Cataloguing or Bibliographic organisation considering our current digital aquisitions).

Study task: Think about infomration organisation. Well, I will compare my lovely library, which is nicely organised ( provided you remember which books are graphic novels and which aren’t etc) to say, the search engine for clickview… AAARRRGGGHHHH!!! Learn to use proper search terms you clickview idiots.

In short, a well organised anything is easy to use, a badly organised search makes life tricky.

Now, time to read the text. Even if it means we are skipping ahead 😛

Hider, P (with Harvey, R) 2008, ‘What makes information retrieval systems effective?’, in Organising knowledge in a global society, rev. edn. Centre for Information Studies, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, pp. 21-23.   

Study task

What do you consider to be the main points Hider (2008) is making in the above reading? You are invited to share your ideas on the module 1 subforum.

It looks to me like Hider is saying that the system must work, and be used by many organisations so there can be efficiency and familiarity accross a standardised way of doing things. If the system doesn’t work people won’t co-operate in it anyway, so it will have to be user friendly, give the best results etc, but I guess co-operation and all is time and money saving.

Who organises information?


On the web you will find a  paper titled ‘Electronic information and the functional intergration of libraries, museums and archives‘ by W. Boyd Rayward, History and Electronic Artefacts. Edited by Edward Higgs. Oxford: ClarendonPress, 1998, pp207-226. Read the section entitled ‘The traditional collecting institutions’.

Study task

Having read the Rayward paper, try to decide what the main differences are between libraries, museums and archives, and how these differences might affect how information is organised and retrieved. Think about the following questions and post your comments on the forum.

  • What information is each dealing with?

I am finding this tricky, I was concerned more with the purpose of each and how they deal with info. MY first attempt at this question would be that Library deal with access to information through storage and retrieval, as does an archive, just specific information, for say a government, but not for often retrieval, and Museums have information for display, but I sense this is not what the question is asking.

  • How different is it?

well in some cases it’s pretty obvious, when you compare a novel to a dinosaur at a natural history museum, but an electronic government record to say, a webpage? Ultimately to me, it is all either information or a thing ( or information as a thing according to Buckland 😛 )

  • How does it change what information we might want to organise and retrieve?

I don’t think it does, I think its the same info, just in different forms.

Hmm, scary point about how Libraries may only in future have no longer commercially viable information due to profesional data-bases (acting as subscription libraries). That would definitely make us more like museums.

the big question is >>> why would one wish to retain materials in printed form except for what they represent as atifacts if their texts can be cost effectively transferred to electronic systems which provide better storage and access capabilities?

(i.e. if we keep tham as artifacts, then we become like museums).

Ok, to teh next reading … You may also like to read part of chapter 1 (pages 1-24) of: Taylor, Arlene 2004, The organization of information. Englewood, CO, Libraries Unlimited   (not overly helpful in saying which parts to read. Oh well, I have 30 odd min I’ll skim it).

ooh, what is a digital library? good question. I am thinking project Gutenberg.

Ok, Information architect. New Term time. The Job is (pg 19)

  1. Clarifies the MISSION and VISION for the sire, balancing the needs of its sponsoring organization and the needs of its audiences.
  2. Determines what CONTENT and FUNCTIONALITY the site will contain.
  3. Specifies how users will find information in the site by defining its ORGANISATION, NAVIGATION, LABELING and SEARCHING SYSTEMS.
  4. Maps out how the site will accommodate CHANGE and GROWTH over time.

OKay, that is 2 hours straight of readings and I am done, Back again tomorrow from Page 4 of the Module.



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Chapter 2: Introduction to Dewey Decimal Classification

Posted by arlekeno on July 10, 2012

The History of Melvil Dewey’s system, Odd to think that before books were classified by where they were. Also interesting to think that the original was 44 pages considering how big my Abridged Vol 12 is! I shall have to download it for free on my iPad.

Would love to get in on the panel that decides the new DDC numbers, I bet that gets a bit heated after a few Sherrys. Anyway, I can get to Dewey online these days via thanks to being a student, though i don’t want to know how much the subscription to that costs!


First Summary = the 10 classes   Second Summary = 10 Divisions  Third Summary = 10 Sections, and after the . Dewey’s Decimal 😛  you get EVEN MORE specific in the hierachy

NUMBER BUILDING ( i.e. the stuff I want and need to know)

Numbers are constructed by taking a number from the Schedules, and adding to it digits from the tables 1-6, or from another part of the schedules (pg 11) Ok, this is the bit I don’t get, the tables. We have some explanation on pg 12, but its only vaguley clearer than mud. I need examples! I vaguely get we can use table 2 to add a location after the decimal, but I need to know in what order we read the tables, what order do we add numbers, and can I look at the bits after the Decimal to work out what it means like I can before the dot?

The Relative index on the other hand makes sense, I will have to look at my copy of the DDC abridged for it, I know we have it for the SCIS subjects in a manner. (am using my town library’s copy, there are NOTES in it EVERYWHERE!)

Advantages of DDC (pg 13 and the Answer to the quiz 2.2 Q4 )

  1. DDC was the first to use the concept of a relative location to organise materials on the shelf.
  2. The Pure Notation (ie all Arabic Numerals) is recognised internationally.
  3. The straightforward numerical sequence facilitates filing and shelving.
  4. The Relative Index brings together different aspects of the same subject which are scattered in different disciplines.
  5. The hierarchical notation expresses the relationship between the class numbers.
  6. The decimal system theoretically enables infinite expansion and subdivision.
  7. the Mnemonic notation helps user to memorise and recognise class numbers (hmmm)
  8. Periodic revision keeps it up to date.

Disadvantages of DDC (pg 13 and the answer to Quiz 2.2 Q5 )

  1. Its Anglo-American bias is evident in its emphasis on American, English and European language, literature and history in the 400s, 800s and 900s, Protestantism/Christianity in the 200s.
  2. Some related disciplines are seperated: 400/800; 300/900.
  3. Some subjects are not very comfortably placed: e.g – Library science in 000; Psychology as part of Philosophy in 100.
  4. In the 800s, Literary works by the same author are scattered according to form: E.g. Shakespeare’s poems are seperated from plays.
  5. Decimal numbering limits its capacity for accomidating subjects on the same level – There can only be 9 divisions (+ 1 general division)
  6. Different rates of growth of some disciplines have resulted in an uneven structure: e.g. 300 & 600 are particularly overcrowded.
  7. Although theoretically expansion is infinite, it doesn’t allow infinite insertion between related numbers, e.g. 610 and 619.
  8. Specificity results in long numbers, which can be awkward for shelving on spine labels.
  9. Altering numbers because of a new edition creates practical problems in libraries, e.g. the need for reclassification, relabelling and reshelving ( I wonder which DDC the SCIS uses for school stuff, I think it is 21, I shall have to check).

Exercise 2.1 is something I do everyday at work, SO I am ok with that. Onto 2.2. The QUIZ

Q1) Describe the Overall Structure of the Dewey Decimal System.

The DDC is divided into 10 main classes, then 10 divisions, then 10 sections.

Q2) What is the purpose of the First, second and Third Summaries? When would you use them?

(ok, I am quoting the answer from the book for this one)

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd summaries list the main classes, divisions and sections with their headings. They are used to become familiar with the overall structure of the DDC, and to locate numbers which relate to each other. (I think the first reason is a bit of a stretch and not mentioned in the book!)

Q3) Why is the relative index so called?

Because it is an idex which relates like or related subjects. (So if a topic has several aspects, you can find the one best suited by looking at all the numbers)

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Learn Dewey Decimal Classification (ed 22) has arrived! Chapter one.

Posted by arlekeno on July 9, 2012

Introduction to Classification.

I like the aims so far.

Purposes of library classification is to

  1. Bring related items together in a helpful sequence.
  2. Provide Formal orderly access to the shelves through browsing or catalogue searching
  3. Enable easy re-shelving of material
  4. Provide an order for the classification catalogue.

All good and well so far. the Features of a classification scheme are also pretty obvious. Interesting to hear the types of Classification schemes though.

  • Enumerative- all of the subject concepts, e.g. LCC
  • Synthetic –  A mix of single and composite subjects, e.g. Colon Classification
  • Hierarchical – DIvision by subjetc, general to specific, e.g. DDC.

This of course makes me wish I knew more about the other classifiers, I am at least aware of Library of Congress, but not the others.

The Criteria for a good Classifcation scheme on Page 7 all make sense.

As for Exercise 1.2: My first choice would be geography, then climate, then species etc.

for 1.1. I went again with Animals, (I thought music was a bit general)

All in all though, I like the acknowledgement of the need of the user. If we are not meeting the needs of the user, we are userless and soon useless.

Revision Quiz 1.3

1)  Give 3 reasons for classifying a library

Easy enough, I already typed them in. To bring like books together, so that they can be found using a catalogue or by browsing. And for easy re-shelving.

2) What is the difference between Enumerative and synthetic classification? give examples. 

Enumerative classification tries to include all Single and Composite subjects required, e.g. LCC  whereas Synthetic lists numbers for Single concepts and allows the synthesising of numbers for composite subjects, e.g. Universal Decimal Classification

OK, I have a problem here, what exactly is meant by Single v Composite subjects, and I still need to find out about these other systems. 

3) In what orders are classification schedules arranged? Why?

Numeric? I am not sure if I should include the notation-index-number building part here or the Generalities class-form classes-form divisions. I think I have missed the crux of this question, time to check the back of the book Ok, they mean, in number order, so we can see the relationships between the numbers, I wonder if they mean close numbers, or when the DDC books talk about a number V another number.

4) What is number building? Why is it a desirable feature of a classification scheme? 

Using numbers already existing to build a new number for a subject not specifically mentioned, good for flexibility. Also allows to save space in the schedules, will this be relevant when the schedules are online and space is not that big a deal? 

5) What is Hierarchical classification? how does it work? 

Subjects are divided from General to Specific, E.g. DDC 500s for sciences, then broken down into branches of science and then specialties there in.

6) Why should a library consider the nature of its client group when it classifies its materials?

I would say our first job is making a library useful to its users, arranging items so they are easier for the students to locate would make sense. Not doing so would diminish our usefulness and waste everyone’s times. (though the book says something about classifications and numbers together to be most useful, which is what I said).

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ETL505 – Bibliographic Standards in Education

Posted by arlekeno on July 9, 2012

Greetings all and welcome to a new semester of Teacher-Librarianship studies. This subject is all about bibliographic standards, and once again, they want us to use our lovely learning journals, so here I am again, typing away. Anyhow, to begin, the goals.

Organising information is concerned with establishing systems that arrange and manage information in a systematic manner. The primary goal of the system is to provide access to information.

This subject requires you to:

  • gain a knowledge of bibliographic organisation; and
  • examine bibliographic organisation as it applies in school libraries.

All pretty logical if you work in information management really. We need to know how to do this stuff, and it will take us roughly 10 hours a week for 14 weeks.  I am expecting some overlap with the study previosly of Boolean search logic, and I hope that makes life a little easier. Now, to teh subject content.

The subject covers seven topics:

  1. The need for information resource description
  2. Information retrieval tools
  3. Introducing metadata
  4. Metadata standards
  5. Providing subject access to information resources
  6. Classification
  7. Future trends in information organisation

And Assesments are due, 1) 13th August, 2a) 10th September and 2b) 8 October.

With hope my text bok and work book will arrive soon ( there was a stock shortage).  Hider, P. (with Harvey, R.) (2008). Organising knowledge in a global society and Mortimer, M. (2004). Learn Dewey Decimal Classification, Edition 22 I guess there is no workbook for Dewey 23 yet.

Speaking of DDC 23, we get web access to the online version (since the print version is $400) at   Password pending. As well as SCIS, Which I already have access to.

OK, Assesment time. All standards are according to the (link not found, guideline for presentation … ) uh oh. THey PRobably mean and lets not forget APA referencing

Assessment item 1
Bibliographic description
Value: 30%
Due date: 13-Aug-2012
Return date: 03-Sep-2012
Length: 2000 words (+ or minus 10%)
Submission method options
EASTS (online)
Post (option applies to DE only)

Answer the following question drawing upon relevant and current literature.


RDA will replace AACR2 in 2013. What are the advantages of the change from AACR2 to RDA?


The purpose of this assignment is to assess your understanding of the purposes and processes involved in descriptive cataloguing.

Marking criteria

You will be assessed on:

The clarity and depth of your understanding of RDA (in particular) and AACR2 (10 marks)

The effectiveness of your overview of the advantages of RDA including:

  • theoretical structure
  • compatibility with the digital environment and emerging technologies
  • potential use and users, including school libraries 
  • rationalisation and potential extension of bibliographic records (10 marks)
  • continuity with existing standards

Your demonstrated understanding of the following areas within your discussion:

  • FRBR and FRAD
  • FRBR user tasks – find, select, identify, obtain
  • FRAD user tasks – find , identify, contextualise, justify
  • FRBR entities, attributes and relationships – work, expression, manifestation, item
  • The RDA Toolkit (10 marks)

The clarity and structure of your presentation and the accuracy of your referencing (marks can be deducted from the above areas)


You should use the presentation standards for teacher librarianship assessment items.

Ok, Honestly that is a whole lot of initials that mean nothing to me. now I REALLY hope the text books get here soon!


Assessment item 2A
Subject access: subject headings
Value: 35%
Due date: 10-Sep-2012
Return date: 01-Oct-2012
Submission method options
EASTS (online)
Post (option applies to DE only)

Using the following tools:

  • SCIS subject headings online
  • Section 4, Subject headings, in SCIS standards for cataloguing and data entry

assign SCIS standard subject headings for works on the five topics that will be posted on the subject forum. Write the subject headings as they would appear on bibliographic records on SCIS OPAC (except there is no need to underline your subject headings, to add ‘scisshl’ at the end of the headings, or to include ‘scot’ headings). State briefly the decisions followed in determining/deriving the subject headings (approximately 200 words per item).

Provide a reference list of tools used and works consulted.


You should use the time before the five topics are posted to work systematically through the relevant parts of, and exercises in, module 5.

Example exercise

A work which names and describes a number of sources of historical materials used in writing narrative school histories. This work is specifically concerned with sources used for the writing of narrative histories of Queensland government schools.

Example subject heading devised

State schools – Queensland – History – Sources

Example key decisions followed

SN at ‘History’
SN and SEN at ‘History – Sources’
‘Government schools’ USE ‘State Schools’
IN at ‘State schools’
Guidelines, Part 6.7 Multi concept headings
Guidelines, Part 2 Specificity


This assignment assesses your practical understanding of, and ability to apply, a controlled vocabulary approach to providing access by subject.

Marking criteria

The assignment will be assessed on:

  • The appropriateness and accuracy of subject headings assigned (20 marks).
  • The understanding shown of the processes by which these subject headings are determined (15 marks) 
  • The clarity of your presentation (marks can be deducted from above)

Ok, This task seems a bit easier to understand and I have done something similar before, My only problem is I will be out of the country the weekend it is due, so I will need to get a move on.

Assessment item 2B
Subject access: classification
Value: 35%
Due date: 08-Oct-2012
Return date: 29-Oct-2012
Submission method options
EASTS (online)
Post (option applies to DE only)

Using DDC23/WebDewey in conjunction with section 3, Classification in SCIS standards for cataloguing and data entry, create SCIS standard classification numbers for the ten items that will be posted on the subject forum. Do not add any locational devices or make any adaptations which are individual library practices.


Show the process by which you reached your answers by setting out your working by which you determined your answer. Create the full Dewey number, then truncate it, if necessary, to SCIS classification standards.

Include a reference list of tools and works used. In particular you must clearly state whether you used the online (Web Dewey) or print version of DDC23.

You should use the time before the items are posted to work systematically through module 6 and the related workbook.

Example Raising goats for their wool by Patrick Leary

Using print version of DDC23


Example based on DDC22 636 Animal husbandry
  .3 Smaller ruminants Sheep
  .39 Goats
  .391 Goats for specific purposes (add to base no.
636.391 the numbers following 636.088 in
636.0882-636.0889) [v.3, p.341]
  (636.088)45 Animals raised for hair and feathers
    Including bristles, wool [v.3, p.336]
  636.39145 DDC22 number. truncation not required
(3:D4 SCIS)
Example based on ADDC14 636 Animal husbandry
  636.3 Smaller ruminants Sheep
    Including goats [p.626]
(wool growing in relative index = 636.3) [p.1047]
  636.3 ADDC14 number. Truncation not required (3:D4 SCIS)


If you use WebDewey concisely describe the searches performed plus the links, instructions and SCIS decisions followed to construct your classification number.

For example:

Performed search for keyword ‘xyz’.

followed link on number 567.89.

Under the number 123.456 observed note: ‘Class at 234.567…’.



This assessment task assesses your practical understanding and application of bibliographic classification.

Marking criteria

This assessment task will be assessed on:

  • How accurately you have applied DDC rules and SCIS decisions (20 marks).
  • How clearly you have described the determination of the classification numbers including, where appropriate, the number building process used (15 marks).
  • The clarity of your presentation (marks can be deducted from above). 

NOW THIS I REALLY WANT TO KNOW! ( though I will have to remember to record every search step).

But I can’t find the modules to start work. Makes me a little happy really to be ready before the lecture notes are even available. A good sign for my last ever subject!


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