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Topic 4.2 Information process models

Posted by arlekeno on May 15, 2009

Response to: NSWDET Information Process
A revised and online 2007 version of the original 1989 process. The document, Information skills in the school: Engaging learners in constructing knowledge is developed by the School Libraries and Information Literacy Unit, Curriculum K–12 Directorate,

Good definition of what an information process is on pg8                                          The information process is the series of physical and intellectual steps that anyone takes to complete an information task.

I especially like the 2-way arrows indicating Going Back and Forth between the 6 skills of Defining, locating, selecting, organising, presenting and assessing. pg 9 should probably be a poster in my Library.

Interesting to see that the DET would like ( if possible depending on the school) the TL to help teachers in their classrooms, not just the Library. I think this would be a good idea if the Library itself was also covered, who would watch the senior study period if the TL was out?

Looking at the 6 skills and the suggestions on how to teach them, Maybe this could be scaffolded at the commencement of each assessment, “ok kiddies, look at the poster, first you have to…”

Response to:Developing an information literacy policy and program This link could not be opened.

Response to:

What is it? Well, here it is!

1. Task Definition

1.1 Define the information problem
1.2 Identify information needed

2. Information Seeking Strategies

2.1 Determine all possible sources
2.2 Select the best sources

3. Location and Access

3.1 Locate sources (intellectually and physically)
3.2 Find information within sources

4. Use of Information

4.1 Engage (e.g., read, hear, view, touch)
4.2 Extract relevant information

5. Synthesis

5.1 Organize from multiple sources
5.2 Present the information

6. Evaluation

6.1 Judge the product (effectiveness)
6.2 Judge the process (efficiency)

People go through these Big6 stages—consciously or not—when they seek or apply information to solve a problem or make a decision. It’s not necessary to complete these stages in a linear order, and a given stage doesn’t have to take a lot of time. We have found that in almost all successful problem-solving situations, all stages are addressed.

I have spent so much time reading about it I feel I know it as an old friend allready 😛

I have to say this is a very good and useful site. Anything which gives a teacher ready made worksheets is popular.

the Super 3 is also useful

Response to Plus (James herring):

I think the question matrix which gives you a nice handy list of questions ( good for explicit teaching) is good.

Skills – Location Locational skills such as the ability to find information in library catalogues, books, CD-ROMs and the Web
  • How will I search for the information I need?
  • What words should I use if I use a search engine?
Selection skills in assessing the relevance of information resources
  • Is this what I really need?
  • Will it be useful to me?
IT skills using electronic sources such as the Web
  • How do I get on to a search engine?
  • Should I use the library website?

Another plus side is that it only has 4 things to remember insteaad of 6

  • Purpose
  • Location
  • Use
  • Self-evaluation

Task definition would appear to relate to the Plus Models PURPOSE. Location and Access is obvioulsy LOCATION, but also includes the Information seeking strategies of the Big6 as well.  SELF EVALUATION and Evaluation line up, Leaving USE in the plus model to be both Use of information and Synthesis form the big 6.

Personally I have a preference for breaking tasks into smaller chunks, so I think 6 would be my preference of these two.

Response to: Herrings response to plus

Evaluation of an ISP model. obviously using their own evaluate stage 😉

The support of students for the brainstorming seems to support the sharing of ideas, working as team, more ideas, CCK talks about (later reading this post). Pg6.  The complaints seemed more about group dynamics… or should I say, TEAM WORK LITERACY!

I have NEVER before seen anyone do a survey on HOW students take notes. What a concept! We have thought about how they think, but not how they record!

Pg17. I would be interested to know the OWN WAY used by teh student who did not like the Plus model.

OOhh, Acronyms! We love them!  I have to say this reading was well written, interesting and informative!
response to : OSLA Information Studies

Good History of development and rationale and good quotes like The illiterate of the year 2000, according to Alvin Toffler, will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. Our students need to be information literate, lifelong learners.

I like the emphasis of the role of the parents.


Again these relate closely to the BIG 6 skills, but with no formal evaluation. (Which I think is important to lifelong learning.). The Page on research, is interesting as it compares the model to a raft of theories and other models.

I also like the clear benchmarks given for each grade.

Responae to: Eisenberg, M. B. (2008). Information literacy: Essential skills for the Information Age. Journal of Library & Information Technology, 28(2), 39-47.


There are three essential contexts for successful


IL learning and teaching:

The information process itself

Technology in context

Real needs—either work, educational, or personal.

VERY USEFUL COMPARISON of the major IP models… refer to this for task 2. The table which shows the big 6 and the technology to go with it is also handy.

Response to: Kuhlthau, C.C. (2004). Learning as a process, in Seeking meaning: A process approach to library and information services, Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, pp.13-27

Some of these lists, like phases of construction look a lot like IP models to me.  For example.  Kelley’s 5 phases. Confusion, mounting confusion, tentative hypothesis, testing and assessing, reconstructing. Now imagine the problem (confusion etc) being teacher set, Tentative hypothesis is what you need to work out what questions you need to answer ( and so you can develop strategies and ask questions to do it). You can then test and assess… or  EVALUATE what you have, and then you have recontstruction, whch is assessing and synthesis. It looks like the Big 6 relates very closely to the way people think.

I like the idea on page 21 of suspending disbelief to try and work out a new solution. Its something I like to do ( and is essential for watching moves 🙂


Interesting, pg24, people can handle lots of known information but only 7 +- 2 new pieces of info. So, keep new info to less than 5 things and you will be ok.

Response to: Kuhlthau, C.C. (1995). The process of learning from information, School Libraries Worldwide, 1(1),1-12,

The concept of INformation literacy and information skills is an expansion of library skills. ” pg 2, oh so true.

The Idea of Process (pg2) rings an alarm bell for me. I look at students in Maths classes who automaticlally want to do even basic sums with a calculator and not have to worry about the P-Word, the basic skills of how to do it. What will these students do when faced with sums and no calculator on them?

CCK ISP model:                 Feelings thoughts             Actions.

  1. Initiation                Uncertainty Vague                   seeking
  2. Selection                Optimism vague                   relevent
  3. Exploration          confusion/doubt Information
  4. formulation          Clarity Focused
  5. collection              Confidence/Direction Pertinent info.
  6. presentation        Satisfaction increased interest   documenting.

As an aside, Interesting to see the writing blocks are really thinking blocks. I shall remember that next time I am stuck.

OOhh, a set of strategies. Useful. pg 9. I suppose it is true, that we do a lot of colloboration in the work force. I also like the timeline, a visual record of what a sutdent did, what stage they were at, and when.

PRIMARY INHIBITERS of ISPA: Lack of time, confusion of roles, poorly designed reasearch assignments.

PRIMARY ENABLERS of ISPA: A team approach to library services, a mutually held constructivist view of information seeking, a shared commitment to teaching skills for lifelong learning and competence in designing process strateies. (pg11)

Response to : McGregor, J.H. (1994). An analysis of thinking in the research process, School Libraries in Canada, 14(2), 4-7,

Very good question, “How can we teach effective thinking when we lack empirical evidence of what happens during the process?”

Study supports the view that we need to teach metacognition ( something te Big6 model seems to like as it gives a languaeg for metacogniton).


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